Botswana is faced with the challenge of ensuring that the nation successfully deals with the dynamics of the “second transition”. This is the development phase which is characterised by mineral-led growth, with its dependence on windfall (unearned) income and government-led development, to income earned from being competitive, productive and efficient, derived from selling (exporting) goods and services to other countries in the region and globally. The “first transition”, during the period after independence, was from a rural/agricultural economy to a fast growing, mineral-led economy. The Macroeconomics and Development research focuses on this challenge of transitioning to diversified, export-led growth, and the macroeconomic policies that are necessary to support this transition. This covers areas such as fiscal policy, monetary and exchange rate policy, infrastructure and development of the financial sector. These areas are grouped under three research themes, and these are Macroeconomic Policy, Finance, and Infrastructure Development.